Rong Xu, PhD
email@example.com | 216.368.0023 | Wolstein Research Building, 6125
Ph.D. Biomedical Informatics, Stanford University
M.S. Computer Science, Stanford University
B.S., Biology, Peking University
Rong Xu is an Associate Professor (tenured) in the Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University. Rong Xu received both her Ph.D. in Biomedical Informatics and M.S in Computer Science from Stanford University, and B.S in Biology from Peking University. Rong Xu was selected as a Siebel Scholar  in 2004 for her outstanding academic performance and leadership at Stanford. Rong Xu received the 2014 NIH Director’s Innovator Award , the 2015 Landon Foundation-AACR INNOVATOR Award for Cancer Prevention Research , the 2015 AMIA New Investigator Award , and the 2016 ‘American Cancer Society Research Scholar. Rong was featured on 2016 Cleveland’s Crain’s latest “Who to Watch Health Care”, which highlights innovators in Northeast Ohio’s medical fields .
Research Interests (Biomedical Informatics)
Rong’s research goal is to facilitate biomedical discovery and to improve health care delivery by promoting efficient biomedical knowledge flow among biomedical researchers, physicians and patients.
My research interests in computer science include:
- Natural language processing
- Artificial Intelligence
- Machine learning, Deep learning
- Systems biology
- Data mining
- Graph theory
- Ontology, knowledge representation and engineering
- Imaging Informatics
My research interests in biomedical sciences include:
- Drug discovery, drug repositioning
- Disease gene discover
- Gene-environment-disease interactions
- Human gut microbiome
- Drug target discovery
- Drug toxicity prediction
- Cancer drug toxicity
- Drug addiction
- Neuroscience informatics
- Post-market drug surveillance
- 2018 Rong Xu featured on Crain’s Cleveland Business: Team at CWRU receives $2.8 million for Alzheimer’s research
- 2018 Rong Xu featured on Alzheimer’s News Today: DrugPredict Wins $2.8M NIH Grant to Repurpose Approved Therapies to Treat Alzheimer’s
- 2018 Rong Xu featured on HealthCare Informatics: CWRU Receives $2.8M Grant for Informatics-Driven Alzheimer’s Research
- 2018 Rong Xu on EurekAlert: Researchers receive $2.8 million to repurpose FDA-approved drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease
- 2018 Rong Xu on NewsWise: Researchers Receive $2.8 Million to Repurpose FDA-approved Drugs to Treat Alzheimer’s Disease
- 2018 Rong Xu featured on Pharmfile: New project examining FDA-approved drugs for Alzheimer’s, worries over research remains
- 2018 Rong Xu featured on News-Medical: Researchers awarded grant to repurpose FDA-approved drugs for treating Alzheimer’s patients
- 2018 Rong Xu featured on CWRU The Daily: Researchers repurpose pain meds to kill cancer cells
- 2018 Rong Xu featured on CWRU School of Medicine News: Researchers Receive $2.8 Million to Repurpose FDA-approved Drugs to Treat Alzheimer’s Disease, NIH award to propel biomedical informatic, clinical, and animal studies
- 2018 Rong Xu featured on Being Patient: “Does an Alzheimer’s Drug Already Exist? Researchers to Begin a 5-Year Search”
- 2018 Rong Xu on EurekAlert Researchers receive $6.5 million NIH grant to use big data to tackle psoriasis
- 2017 DrugPredict on ScienceDaily (audience of 3,187,787) Computer program finds new uses for old drugs: Researchers repurpose pain meds to kill cancer cells
- 2017 Rong Xu featured on Dean’s Message, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University.
- 2017 Rong Xu on Case Comprehensive Cancer Center News Letter.
- 2017 DrugPredict on Fox News (Tampa Bay/St. Petersburg/Sarasota station) “Drug Predict” Computer Program finds new uses for old drugs
- 2017 DrugPredict on Drug Discovery and Development. Computer Program Finds New Uses for Old Drugs
- 2017 DrugPredict on HealthData Management: Algorithm quickly identifies new indications for old drugs
- 2017: DrugPredict on ScienceNewsLine: Computer Program Finds New Uses for Old Drugs
- 2017: DrugPredict on HealthCare Analytics News: Computer Program Finds New Applications for Old Medications
- 2017: DrugPredict on EurekaAlert: Researchers repurpose pain meds to kill cancer cells
- 2017: DrugPredict on CWRUMed360: Computer Program Finds New Uses for Old Drugs
- 2017: Rong Xu on Siebel Scholar Spotlight:Rong Xu Searches for Medical Breakthroughs in Big Data
- 2016: Rong Xu on American Association for Cancer Research (AACR): Innovators in Cancer Discovery: Tapping Technology to Improve Cancer Prevention
- 2016:Rong Xu on Cancer Research Catalyst: the Official Blog of American Association for Cancer Research Using Bioinformatics to Define New Paths to Cancer Prevention
- 2016:Rong Xu on Crain’s Cleveland Business Who to Watch in Health Care
- 2015: The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) Awards Rong Xu, PhD, New Investigator Award AMIA Awards Rong Xu, PhD, New Investigator Award
- 2015: Rong Xu received the 2015 Landon Foundation – AACR INNOVATOR Award for Cancer Prevention Research. Rong Xu, PhD Receives AACR Innovator Award for Cancer Prevention Research
- 2015: Rong Xu on CWRU Think Magazine: Uncovering a Drug’s Welcome Side Effects
- 2015: Rong Xu received the 2015 Mary Kay Foundation Cancer Grant The Mary Kay Foundation 2015 Cancer Grant Recipients
- 2014: Rong Xu on CWRU daily: CWRU scientist captures prestigious NIH Director’s New Innovator Award
- 2014: Rong Xu on Cleveland Plain Dealer: CWRU researcher to scour data for new drug matches to treat disease, gets $2.4 million NIH award
- 2014: Rong Xu on Cleveland Plain Dealer: A conversation with CWRU researcher who uses computer programs, big data to search for drug discoveries
- 2014: Rong Xu on CWRU Observer: Assistant professor wins award from National Institute of Health
- 2014: Rong Xu on Ideastream: A CASE Researcher Wins $2.4M Grant, Ideastream – December 2, 2014
- 2014: Rong Xu on EurekAlert! by AAAS, the science society: Case Western Reserve scientist captures prestigious NIH director’s New Innovator Award
- Nagaraj AB (co-first author), Wang Q (co-first author), Joseph P, Zheng CL, Chen Y, Kovalenko O, Singh S, Armstrong A, Resnick K, Zanotti K, Waggoner S, Xu R (co-corresponding author), Difeo A (co-corresponding author) (2017) Using a novel computational drug repositioning approach (DrugPredict) to Rapidly Identify Potent Drug Candidates for Cancer Treatment. Oncogene advance online publication 2 October 2017; doi: 10.1038/onc.2017.328. http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/onc2017328a.html?WT.feed_name=subjects_genetics.
- Wang Q, McCormick TS, Ward NL, Cooper KD, Xu R (2017) Combining mechanism-based prediction with patient-based profiling for psoriasis metabolomics biomarker discovery. The 2017 Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium, Nov 14-18, Wahshington DC.
- Wang Q, Xu R (2017) Drug repositioning for prostate cancer: using a data-driven approach to gain new insights. The 2017 Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium, Nov 14-18, Wahshington DC.
- Wang Q, Xu R (2017) MetabolitePredict: a de-novo human metabolomics prediction system and its applications in rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 2017 Jul;71:222-228. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2017.06.002. Epub 2017 Jun 7  PMID:28600026.
- Cai, XS, Chen Y, Zhen CL, Xu R (2017) Interrogating Patient-level Genomics and Mouse Phenomics towards Understanding Cytokines in Colorectal Cancer Metastasis. 2017 AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science (Student paper competition finalist).
- Chen Y, Xu R (2017) Context-sensitive network based disease genetics prediction and its implications in drug discovery. Bioinformatics (2017) 33 (7): 1031-1039.PMID:28062449. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btw737 .
- Gao Z, Chen Y, Cai XS, Xu R (2017) Predict Drug Permeability to Blood-Brain-Barrier from Clinical Phenotypes. Bioinformatics (2017) 33 (6): 901-908.PMID:27993785. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btw713
- Chen Y, Xu R (2016) Personalized drug repurposing for glioblastoma based on molecular subtypes. Journal of Biomedical Informatics (2016), pp. 131-138. DOI information: 10.1016/j.jbi.2016.09.019).PMID:27697594 
- Cai, XS, Chen Y, Gao Z, Xu R (2016) Explore Small Molecule-induced Genome-wide Transcriptional Profiles for Novel Inflammatory Bowel Disease Drug Discovery. AMIA 2016 Joint Summits on Translational Science (Marco Ramoni Distinguished Paper Award Finalist).PMID:27570643; PMCID:PMC5001780. 
- Chen Y, Xu R (2016) Phenome-based Gene Discovery Provides Information about Parkinson Disease Drug Targets. BMC Genomics, 2016, 17:493, DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-2820-1.PMID:27586503; PMCID:PMC5009520. .
- Chen Y, Cai XS, Gao Z, Wang BC, Xu R (2016) Towards precision medicine-based therapies for glioblastoma: interrogating human disease genomics and mouse phenotypes. BMC Genomics, 17(7), 516.PMID:27557118; PMCID:PMC5001238 .
- Xu R, Wang Q.(2016) A genomics-based systems approach towards drug repositioning for rheumatoid arthritis. BMC Genomics 2016, 17(Suppl 7):518. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-2910-0.PMID:27557330; PMCID:PMC5001200 .
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2016) Towards understanding brain-gut-microbiome connections in Alzheimer’s disease. BMC Systems Biology 2016, 10:63 DOI: 10.1186/s12918-016-0307-y. PMID:27585440; PMCID:PMC5009560. .
- Jingchao Ni, Mehmet Koyuturk, Hanghang Tong, Jonathan Haines, Rong Xu, and Xiang Zhang (2016). Disease Gene Prioritization by Integrating Tissue-Specific Molecular Networks Using a Robust Multi-Network Model, BMC Bioinformatics, 17 (1), 453, 2016.PMID:27829360; PMCID:PMC5103411. .
- Stephane Meystre ; Hongfang Liu ; Rong Xu ; Sivaram Arabandi ; Kavishwar Wagholikar ; Jon Patrick ; Guergana Savova ; Chunhua Weng ; Pierre Zweigenbaum ; Dina Demner-Fushman ; Ozlem Uzuner ; Hua Xu, (2016) Natural Language Processing Working Group Pre-Symposium: Graduate Student Consortium and ‘Hackathon’ 2016 Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium, Chicago, IL, Nov 12-16.
- Xu R, Wang Q (2015) A genome-wide drug repositioning approach toward prostate cancer drug discovery. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). (Vol. 9096, pp. 435-437). (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); Vol. 9096). Springer Verlag. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-19048-8 .
- Xu R, Wang Q (2015) PhenoPredict: a disease phenome-wide drug repositioning approach towards schizophrenia drug discovery. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, pp. 348-355. DOI information: 10.1016/j.jbi.2015.06.027.PMID:26151312; PMCID:PMC4589865 
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2015) tcTKB: an integrated cardiovascular toxicity knowledge base for targeted cancer drugs. 2015 Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium, San Francisco, CA, Nov 13-18. PMID:26958275; PMCID:PMC4765587 
- Wang Q, Xu R (2015) DenguePredict: An Integrated Drug Repositioning System Towards Drug Discovery for Dengue. 2015 Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium, San Francisco, CA, Nov 13-18.PMID:26958268; PMCID:PMC4765554 
- Chen Y, Cai XS, Xu R (2015) Combing Human Disease Genetics and Mouse Model Phenotypes Towards Drug Repositioning for Parkinson’s Disease. 2015 Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium, San Francisco, CA, Nov 13-18.PMID:26958284; PMCID:PMC4765695 .
- Xu R, & Wang, Q. (2015, April). A Genome-Wide Drug Repositioning Approach toward Prostate Cancer Drug Discovery. In Bioinformatics Research and Applications: 11th International Symposium, ISBRA 2015 Norfolk, USA, June 7-10, 2015 Proceedings (Vol. 9096, p. 435). Springer. .
- Chen Y, Li L, Zhang GQ, Xu R (2015) Phenome-driven Disease Genetics Prediction Towards Drug Discovery. Bioinformatics 2015 31 (12): i276-i283 doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btv245.PMID:26072493; PMCID:PMC4542779. 
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2015) Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects-associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles. Journal of Biomedical Informatics Jun;55:64-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2015.03.009. Epub 2015 Mar 27. PMID:25817969; PMCID:PMC4582661 
- Xu R, Wang Q, Li L, (2015) Genome-wide systems analysis reveals strong link between colorectal cancer and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbial metabolite of dietary meat and fat. BMC Genomics2015, 16(Suppl 7):S4 (11 June 2015).PMID:26100814; PMCID:PMC4474417 .
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2015) Comparing a knowledge-driven approach to a aupervised machine learning approach in large-scale extraction of drug-side effect relationships from free-text biomedical literature. BMC Bioinformatics 2015, 16(Suppl 5):S6 doi:10.1186/1471-2105-16-S5-S6. PMID:25860223; PMCID:PMC4402591 
- Chen Y, Xu R (2015) Network-based Gene Prediction for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Towards Genetics-based Drug Discovery. BMC Genomics 2015, 16(Suppl 7):S9 (11 June 2015). PMID:26099491; PMCID:PMC4474419 
- Chen Y, Li L, Xu R (2015) Disease Comorbidity Network Guides the Detection of Molecular Evidence for the Link Between Colorectal Cancer and Obesity. 2015 AMIA Summits Transl Sci Proc, March 23, 2015 – March 27, 2015, San Francisco. CA. PMID:26306270; PMCID:PMC4525229 
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2015) Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, Volume 53, February 2015, Pages 128–135. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2014.10.002. PMID:25445920; PMCID:PMC4586056 
- Chen Y, Xiang Zhang, GQ Zhang, Xu R (2015) Comparative Analysis of A Novel Disease Phenotype Network Based on Clinical Manifestations. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, Feb;53:113-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2014.09.007. Epub 2014 Sep 30.PMID:25277758; PMCID:PMC4452018. 
- Jiang R, Chen R, Cheng S, Jiang X, Shen B, Xu R, Yi S. (2014) Introductory Editorial: Computational Advances in Cancer Informatics. Journal of Cancer Informatics, 2014:Suppl. 1 45-48 doi: 10.4137/CIN.S19243.PMID:25484572; PMCID:PMC4216040.
- Chen Y, Xu R (2014) Mining cancer-specific disease comorbidities from a large observational database. Cancer Informatics 2014:Suppl. 1 37-44. doi: 10.4137/CIN.S13893.PMID:25392682; PMCID:PMC4216041. 
- Chen Y, Xu R (2014) Network Analysis of Human Disease Comorbidity Patterns Based on Large-scale Data Mining. In Bioinformatics Research and Applications (pp. 243-254). Springer International Publishing 
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2014) Automatic construction of a large-scale and accurate drug-side-effect association knowledge base from biomedical literature. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, J Biomed Inform. 2014 Oct;51:191-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2014.05.013. Epub 2014 Jun 10. PMID:24928448; PMCID:PMC4589180..
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2014) A knowledge-Driven Approach in Constructing a Large-Scale Drug-Side Effect Relationship Knowledge Base for Computational Drug Discovery. International Symposium on Bioinformatics Research and Applications (ISBRA) 2014 Conference.
- Xu R, Li L, Wang Q, (2014) dRiskKB: a large-scale disease-disease risk (causal) relationship knowledge base constructed from biomedical text. BMC Bioinformatics 2014, 15:105, doi:10.1186/1471-2105-15-105. PMID:24725842; PMCID:PMC3998061. .
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2014) Large-scale combining signals from both biomedical literature and the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to improve post-marketing drug safety signal detection. BMC Bioinformatics 2014 Jan 15;15:17. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-15-17.PMID:24428898; PMCID:PMC3906761. .
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2014) Automatic signal prioritizing and filtering approaches in detecting post-marketing cardiovascular events associated with targeted cancer drugs from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Journal of Biomedical Informatics (2014), Feb;47:171-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2013.10.008. Epub 2013 Oct 28.PMID:24177320; PMCID:PMC4452013. 
- Cui L, Xu R, Luo Z, Wentz S, Scarberry K, Zhang GQ. Multi-topic assignment for exploratory navigation of consumer health information in NetWellness using formal concept analysis. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2014;14:63 PMID:25086916; PMCID:PMC4131492.
- Luo J, Zhang GQ, Wentz S, Cui L, Xu R, SimQ: Real-Time Retrieval of Similar Consumer Health Questions J Med Internet Res, doi:10.2196/jmir.3388. PMID:25689608; PMCID:PMC4376128 
- Ogbuji C, Xu R (2014) Lattices for Representing and Analyzing Organogenesis, Conference on Semantics in Healthcare and Life Sciences (CSHALS 2014), February 26-28, 2014, Boston, MA. 
- Xu R, Li L, Wang Q, (2013) Towards building a disease-phenotype relationship knowledge base: large scale extraction of disease-manifestation relationship from literature. Bioinformatics 2013; doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btt359. PMID 23828786; PMCID:PMC4068009 .
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2013) A Semi-Supervised Pattern-Learning Approach to Extract Pharmacogenomics-Specific Drug-Gene Pairs from Biomedical Literature. J Pharmacogenom Pharmacoproteomics 4: 117. doi:10.4172/2153-0645.1000117. 
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2013) Toward creation of a cancer drug toxicity knowledge base: automatically extracting cancer drug side effect relationships from literature. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (JAMIA), 2014;21:1 90-96.PMID:23686935; PMCID:PMC3912715 .
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2013) A semi-supervised approach to extract pharmacogenomics-specific drug-gene pairs from biomedical literature for personalized medicine. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 2013 Aug;46(4):585-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2013.04.001. Epub 2013 Apr 6.PMID:23570835; PMCID:PMC4452014.
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2013) Large-scale extraction of drug-disease treatment pairs from biomedical literature for drug repurposing. BMC Bioinformatics, 2013, 14(1), 181.PMID:23742147; PMCID:PMC3702428. 
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2013) An iterative searching and ranking algorithm for prioritizing pharmacogenomics genes. Int J Comput Biol Drug Des. 2013;6(1-2):18-31. PMID 23428471. 
- Chen Y, Zhang X, Zhang GQ and Xu R, (2013) Creation and Comparative Analysis of a Novel Disease Phenotype Network Based on Clinical Manifestation. 2013 Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium (Accepted for Late-breaking oral presentation).
- Chen Y, Ren XF, Zhang GQ, Xu R, (2013) Ontology-Guided Organ Detection to Retrieve Web Images of Disease Manifestation: Towards the Construction of a Consumer-based Health Image Library. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association(JAMIA) 2013, 20(6), 1076-1081.PMID:23792805; PMCID:PMC3822108.
- Luo ZH, Zhang GQ, Xu R, (2013) Mining Patterns Among Adverse Events in Clinical Trials – An Exploratory Study. AMIA Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2013 Mar 18;2013:112-6.PMID:24303317; PMCID:PMC3814483 .
- Zhang GQ, Cui LC, Teagno J, Kaelber, D, Koroukian S, Xu R, (2013) Merging Ontology Navigation with Query Construction for Web-based Medicare Data Exploration, AMIA Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2013 Mar 18;2013:285-9.PMID:24303282; PMCID:PMC3845758. 
- Luo L1, Xu R, Zhang GQ. (2013) Dissecting the Ambiguity of FMA Concept Names Using Taxonomy and Partonomy Structural Information, 2013 AMIA Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2013 Mar 18;2013:157-61.PMID:24303256; PMCID:PMC3845762 
- Luo L1, Rowbottom J, Craker J, Xu R, Zhang GQ.(2013) VINSIA: Visual Navigator for Surgical Information Access. Military Medicine. 2013 Jul;178(7):746-52. doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00406.PMID 23820348.
- Chen Y, Ren XF, Zhang GQ, Xu R, (2012) Ontology Guided Approach to Retrieving Disease Manifestation Images for Health Image Base Construction. IEEE Healthcare Informatics, Imaging and Systems Biology (HISB) 2012 (Best Research Paper Award).
- Ogbuji C, Xu R, (2012) Integrating large, disparate biomedical ontologies to boost organ development network connectivity. Data Integration in the Life Sciences 2012 (DILS 2012).
- Xu R, Wang Q, (2012) A knowledge-driven conditional approach to extract pharmacogenomics specific drug-gene relationships from free text, Journal of Biomedical Informatics. 2012 Oct;45(5):827-34.PMID:22561026; PMCID:PMC4589154 
- Chen Y, Zhang GQ, Xu R, (2012) Semi-supervised Image Classification for Automatic Construction of a Health Image Library, 2nd ACM SIGHIT International Health Informatics Symposium, 2012.
- Xu R, Musen M, Shah N, (2010) A Comprehensive Analysis of Five Million UMLS Metathesaurus Terms Using Eighteen Million MEDLINE Citations. Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium 2010. pp. 907-911.PMID:21347110; PMCID:PMC3041393. 
- Parai, PK, Jonquet C, Xu R, Musen M, Shah N, (2010) The Lexicon Builder Web Service: Building Custom Lexicons from Two Hundred Biomedical Ontologies. Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium 2010. pp. 587–591.PMID:21347046; PMCID:PMC3041331. 
- Xu R, Das A, Garber AM, (2009) Unsupervised Method for Extracting Machine Understandable Medical Knowledge from a Large Free Text Collection. Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium, 2009. pp. 709-713.PMID:20351945; PMCID:PMC2815389.  (Student Paper Finalist)
- Xu R, Morgan A, Das A, Garber AM, (2009) Investigation of Unsupervised Pattern Learning Techniques for Bootstrap Construction of a Medical Treatment Lexicon. Association for Computational Linguistics BioNLP Workshop, 2009. pp. 63-70. 
- Xu R, Supekar K, Morgan A, Das A, Garber AM, (2008) Unsupervised Method for Automatic Construction of a Disease Dictionary from a Large Free Text Collection. Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium, 2008. pp. 820-824.PMID:18999169; PMCID:PMC265608769. 
- Xu R, Garten Y, Supekar K, Altman RB, Garber AM, (2007) Extracting Subject Demographics From Abstracts of Randomized Clinical Trials. World Congress on Medical and Health Informatics(MEDINFO), 2007. pp. 824-828. PMID 17911777. 
- Xu R, Supekar K, Huang Y, Das A, Garber AM. Combining Text Classification and Hidden Markov Modeling Techniques for Structuring Randomized Clinical Trial Abstracts (2006), Annual American Medical Informatics Association Symposium, 2006. pp. 824-828.PMID:17238456; PMCID:PMC1839538.